Interesting construction facts (Интересные факты строительства)

Первыми зданиями следует считать жилища из шкур животных, натянутые на деревянные шесты. В некоторых местностях, где не хватало древесины, использовали кости животных (в основном мамонта). Около 6000 до Р. Х. люди начали возводить жилья из сырого кирпича и дерева. Стены штукатурили (штукатурили) и расписывали растительными красками. Пол был земляной или покрывался соломой или шкурами животных. Столы и кровати также были сделаны из кирпича.

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The use of a metal frame opened the possibility for the construction of ultra-tall skyscraper houses in the United States. The need for the construction of such buildings was due to the increase under capitalism in the cost of land in the center of large cities. In addition to metal, in the second half of the XIX century. other progressive materials are beginning to be used - concrete and reinforced concrete. These materials, which were given life by the large scale of construction, influenced the further development of world architecture. Architecture of the end of the XIX century. - the beginning of the twentieth century. reflected the desire of architects for creative freedom and the introduction of modern technologies.

History of construction development (История развития строительства)

About 2000 BC, the Chinese built houses from wooden poles, covering them with thatched roofs. In Skara Brae in the Orkney Islands, off the coast of Scotland, a settlement of stone houses was discovered, in the middle of which there were stone niches for utensils, tables and bunks. The settlement was buried under a layer of sand 4500 years ago during a hurricane. The buildings of Ancient Greece amaze with their noble beauty and grandeur. A person looking at the Parthenon feels taller and broader in the shoulders, the size of the building did not suppress, did not humiliate him. The secret of the harmony of the lines and form of the Parthenon temple is based on such an accurate understanding of the laws of optics and healthy perception.

All over the world, houses and cathedrals became more and more refined and lighter. The carvings of Khmer temples, the roofs of the palaces and temples of the Ming Dynasty in China, and the exquisite wood carvings in Japan are vivid examples of the grandeur and diversity of architectural styles of that time. The appearance of the Ottoman Turks in the Muslim world breathed new life into the construction business. The ancient styles improved by the Seljuks and Persians were enriched with new details and forms. The latest ideas for the construction of arches, columns and mosaics originated in Turkey, Morocco, Afghanistan and Samarkandi.

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