Interesting construction facts (Интересные факты строительства)
The art of building buildings and structures according to the laws of utility, strength and beauty has always been associated with the solution of various technical, aesthetic and economic problems. Each historical epoch in its own way solved these problems at the level of technical progress of its time in accordance with its ideals. This is evidenced by the construction monuments that have come down to us.
The earliest people (40,000-1500 BC) lived in caves and other natural shelters. Gradually, they began to build more comfortable dwellings and other buildings, using wood, clay, and stone.
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History of construction development (История развития строительства)
With the growth and development of European cities, the face of functional buildings has changed. Brick and stone houses, warehouses, new streets, public buildings and churches were built in the new style. Characteristic features of the new urban buildings were large windows, spacious rooms and magnificent facades, testifying to the respectability of the popular middle class. In Amsterdam, Stockholm, Cologne and Vienna, houses and streets took on new features. Modern architecture has developed in this style. Thanks to the Greek columns, made in the exquisite Baroque style, the building of the Altes Museum in Berlin received the appearance of a majestic and timeless building.
The building of the Parthenon is a creation of the republic, and the Colosseum is a violation of the slave-owning military empire. The Parthenon in Athens, completed in 432 BC, was the largest of all Greek temples. Advanced stone cladding and a complex scaffolding system were used, which made it possible to erect such a large building.
The Greeks were skilled builders. Studying in Latin helped them to design proportional structures that were in perfect harmony with the environment. 300 years before R.Kh. in urban planning, the placement of streets was already carried out behind grids. The urban planners of Central America also built cities
according to plan. In places where cities arose on the site of historical settlements, forts, ports and crossroads, they did not have such a strict layout.